Глава 3. Плохой контроль
1. Royal College of Physicians, London UK. INNOVATING FOR HEALTH. Patients, physicians, the pharmaceutical industry and the NHS. February 2009. Report of a Working Party.
2. If you’re very confused about the European Medicines Agency, and the UK MHRA, and how they relate to each other, it’s fairly simple. The MHRA used to approve drugs, now the EMA do, but they farm out some of the local work to the old national regulators, especially monitoring and communication, as well as some of the approval stuff.
3. I recommend the work of John Abraham, collected here: (http://www.sussex.ac.uk/proﬁles/6
4. Owen BM, Braeutigam R. The Regulation Game: Strategic Use of the Administrative Process. Ballinger Pub Co; 1978. Via Abraham J. On the prohibition of conﬂicts of interest in pharmaceutical regulation: Precautionary limits and permissive challenges. A commentary on Sismondo (66:9, 2008, 1909-14) and O’Donovan and Lexchin. Social Science & Medicine. 2010 Mar;70(5):648-51.
9. Lurie, P., Almeida, C., Stine, N., Stine, A. R., & Wolfe, S. M. (2006). Financial conﬂict of interest disclosure and voting patterns at food and drug administration drug advisory committee meetings. JAMA, 295, 1921e1928.
10. If you’re interested in starting on this, the following are a good place to start: http://www.nytimes.com/2009/09/25/health/ policy/25knee.html?_r=1; http://www.nytimes.com/ 2005/02/25/ politics/25fda.html. And the work of the Project On Government Oversight is excellent, led by the researcher who worked on Senator Grassley’s reports into the pharmaceutical industry: http://www.pogo.org/ investigations/public-health/fda.html; http://pogoblog.typepad.com/pogo/2011/08/fdas-janetwoodcock-thesubstance-behind-her-nonsubstantivesubstantive – ties-to-industry.html
11. Light D, editor. The Risks of Prescription Drugs (A Columbia/ SSRC Book. Columbia University Press; 2010).
12. Survey of FDA Scientists Shows They Feel Pressure to Exclude…: Oncology Times [Internet]. [cited 2012 May 6]. Available from: http://journals.lww.com/oncology-times/Fulltext/2006/08250/Survey_of_FDA_Scientists_Shows_T hey_ Feel_Pressure.8.aspx
13. USATODAY.com Survey: FDA scientists question safety [Internet]. [cited 2012 May 6]. Available from: http://www.usatoday.com/news/health/2004-12-16-fda-surveyusat_x.htm
14. European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 2011 10.1007/ s00228-011-1052-1 Anything new in EU pharmacovigilance? Silvio Garattini and Vittorio Bertele’.
15. Goldberg NH, Schneeweiss S, Kowal MK, Gagne JJ. Availability of Comparative Efﬁcacy Data at the Time of Drug Approval in the United States. JAMA: The Journal of the American Medical Association. 2011 May 4;305(17):1786-9.
16. Bertele’ V, Banzi R, Gluud C, Garattini S. EMA’s reﬂection on placebo does not reﬂect patients’ interests. European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology [Internet]. 2011 Dec 2 [cited 2012 Feb 13]; Epub ahead of print. Available from: http://www.springerlink.com/content/4j733734v35381jk/
17. Garattini S, Chalmers I. Patients and the public deserve big changes in evaluation of drugs. BMJ. 2009 Mar 31;338(mar313):b1025b1025.
18. Van Luijn JCF, Gribnau FWJ, Leufkens HGM. Availability of comparative trials for the assessment of new medicines in the European Union at the moment of market authorization. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 2007;63(2):159–162.
19. Stafford RS, Wagner TH, Lavori PW. New, but Not Improved? Incorporating Comparative-Effectiveness Information into FDA Labeling. N Engl J Med. 2009 Aug 12;NEJMp0906490.
20. Echt DS, Liebson PR, Mitchell LB, Peters RW, Obias-Manno D, Barker AH, et al. Mortality and morbidity in patients receiving encainide, ﬂecainide, or placebo. The Cardiac Arrhythmia Suppression Trial. N Engl J Med. 1991 Mar;324(12):781–788.
21. ALLHAT Collaborative Research Group. Major cardiovascular events in hypertensive patients randomized to doxazosin vs chlorthalidone: the antihypertensive and lipid-lowering treatment to prevent heart attack trial (ALLHAT). JAMA. 2000 Apr;283(15):1967–1975.
22. Lenzer J. Spin doctors soft pedal data on antihypertensives. BMJ. 2003 Jan 18;326(7381):170.
23. Vilsboll T, Christensen M, Junker AE, Knop FK, Gluud LL. Effects of glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists on weight loss: systematic review and meta-analyses of randomised controlled trials. BMJ. 2012 Jan 11;344(jan10 2):d7771-d7771.
24. Grimes DA, Schulz KF. Surrogate end points in clinical research: hazardous to your health. Obstet Gynecol 2005;105:1114-8.
25. This graph is from Chapter 7 of an excellent (though long and serious) history of the FDA: Carpenter D. Reputation and Power: Organizational Image and Pharmaceutical Regulation at the FDA. Princeton University Press; 2010.
26. Mitka M. FDA Takes Slow Road Toward Withdrawal of Drug Approved With Fast-Track Process. JAMA. 2011 Mar 9;305(10):982-4.
27. Press Announcements > FDA Proposes Withdrawal of Low Blood Pressure Drug [Internet]. [cited 2012 May 7]. Available from: http://www.fda.gov/NewsEvents/Newsroom/ PressAnnouncements/ucm222580.htm
28. United States Government Accountability Ofﬁce. September 2009. NEW DRUG APPROVAL. FDA Needs to Enhance Its Oversight of Drugs Approved on the Basis of Surrogate Endpoints. http://www.gao.gov/new.items/d09866.pdf
29. Davis C, Abraham J. Desperately seeking cancer drugs: explaining the emergence and outcomes of accelerated pharmaceutical regulation. Sociology of Health & Illness. 2011 Jul 1;33(5):731—47.
30. Barbui C, Cipriani A, Lintas C, Bertel V, Garattini S. CNS drugs approved by the centralised European procedure: true innovation or dangerous stagnation? Psychopharmacology. 2006 Nov 22;190(2):265-8.
31. There is a good, free summary of the issues around this area in this PDF from the WHO: Aidan Hollis. Me Too Drugs: is there a problem? http://www.who.int/intellectualproperty/ topics/ip/ Me-tooDrugs_Hollis1.pdf
32. NICE, ‘CG17 Dyspepsia: full guideline,’ Guidance/Clinical Guidelines, http://guidance.nice.org.uk/CG17/Guidance/pdf/ English. But also, if the NICE guideline and its references aren’t enough for you (it’s from 2004) please do waste an hour of your time browsing other more recent trials. There’s nothing magical happening here for esomeprazole.
34. http://www.mediapost.com/publications/?fa=Articles.show Article&art_aid=92473
36. Here I should declare an interest: I sit on the funding panel to address this exact question, every quarter, for the NHS ‘Health Technology Assessment’ programme. This funding stream exists speciﬁcally to identify trials that need to be done, but which no company would fund, comparing one drug against another, and if you are aware of any important areas where we don’t know which of two important treatments is best, you should submit a request (or if you’re lazy, email it to me).
37. http://www.isdbweb.org/publications/view/pharmacovigilancedata (‘Broadening access to signal is a positive step, but access to VigiBase is also needed’, ISDB, February 15th 2012).
38. Hazell L, Shakir SAW. Under-reporting of adverse drug reactions: a systematic review. Drug Saf. 2006;29(5):385-96.
39. L. Harmark and A. C. Grootheest, ‘Pharmacovigilance: methods, recent developments and future perspectives,’ European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 64, no. 8 (June 4, 2008): 743–752.
40. FDA warns Pﬁzer for not reporting side effects Reuters [Internet]. [cited 2012 May 8]. Available from: http://www.reuters.com/ article/2010/06/10/us-pﬁzer-fda-idUSTRE6586PE20100610
41. Healy D: Let them eat Prozac. New York: New York University Press; 2004. Furukawa TA: All clinical trials must be reported in detail and made publicly available. BMJ 2004, 329:626. Via Gotzsche PC. Why we need easy access to all data from all clinical trials and how to accomplish it. Trials. 2011 Nov 23;12(1):249.
42. Serena Frau et al., ‘Risk Management Plans: are they a tool for improving drug safety?’ European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 66, no. 8 (June 25, 2010): 785–790.
43. Giezen TJ, Mantel-Teeuwisse AK, Straus SMJM, Egberts TCG, Blackburn S, Persson I, et al. Evaluation of postauthorization safety studies in the ﬁrst cohort of EU Risk Management Plans at time of regulatory approval. Drug Saf. 2009;32(12):1175-87.
44. Andrew Herxheimer, ‘Looking at EU pharmacovigilance,’ European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 67, no. 11 (November 2011): 1201–1202.
45. Schwartz LM, Woloshin S. Communicating Uncertainties About Prescription Drugs to the Public: A National Randomized Trial. Arch Intern Med. 2011 Sep 12;171(16):1463-8.
46. EMA Press Ofﬁce, 2 February 2012, EMA/30803/2012
47. Garattini S, Bertele’ V. Anything new in EU pharmacovigilance? Eur. J. Clin. Pharmacol. 2011 Nov;67(11):1199-200.
48. Garattini S, Bertele’ V (2010) Rosiglitazone and the need for a new drug safety agency. Br Med J 341:c5506. doi:10.1136/bmj.c5506
51. Carpenter D. Reputation and Power: Organizational Image and Pharmaceutical Regulation at the FDA. Princeton University Press; 2010.
52. European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 2011 10.1007/ s00228-011-1052-1 Anything new in EU pharmacovigilance? Silvio Garattini1 and Vittorio Bertele’1
53. Uncommon knowledge. Drug and Tuerapautics Bulletin. 2009 Nov 1; 47(11):121
54. Schwartz LM, Vvoloshin S, Welch HG. Using a Drug Facts Box to Communicate Drug Beneﬁts and Harms Two Randomized Trials. Ann Intern Med. 2009 Apr 21;150(8):516—27.
55. Germany’s tough reimbursement rules cause drug companies to consider alternative drug trial solutions FT.com [Internet]. [cited 2012 Feb 15]. Available from: http://www.ft.com/cms/s/2/ d458d470-4696-11e1-89a800144feabdc0.html#axzz1mTzZ2jdb.
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