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Типологічно ізоморфні шари англійської та української лексики. Співвідношення стилістично-нейтральних та стилістично-забарвлених лексичних одиниць у порівнюваних мовах


Of isomorphic nature in the contrasted languages are also some other peculiarities and consequently subclasses of lexicon. Among these are also such stylistically distinguished layers of lexicon which are usually characterised as various types of colloquialisms, jargonisms, slang-isms, vulgarisms, professionalisms and some others. The social functioning and stylistic use of these subclasses of words are common not only in the contrasted languages. Thus, the large class of literary colloquial lexicon (розмовно-просторічна лек- сика) consists in English and Ukrainian of some stylistically common subclasses of words to which belong various emotives (емоціональні слова та вирази), slangisms, jargonisms, argotisms, thieves' lingo, etc. Many of these lexical units represent the same substyles of lexicon and have direct equivalents in both contrasted languages. Therefore, this literary colloquial lexis is represented by several layers of words and expressions often or regularly used in expressive emphatic speech with strongly evaluative (positive or negative) aim. Among them are such English and Ukrainian words and phrases of negative evaluation as варнякати, молоти/ плескати язиком, кобенипш/матюкатися, чортихатися, гавкати (ab. people), обгиджувати bespit (обхаркувати), bee-head, beatlehead (тупак, тупиця, "ступа", "довбня"), to malt захоплюватися хмільним ("причащатися"), layabout/lazy-bones ліньтюх (ледацю- га), etc. A disregarding or contemptuous attitude may express also such words as bike велосипед ("велік"), toned up замкнений ("заціпа"), Aussie австралієць ("австралійчик"), MONDAYISH неба- жання працювати після вихідного ("понеділок важкий день ") and some other words and expressions. Often equivalent in English and Ukrainian are also low colloquialisms — vituperative words and phrases (лайливі слова та вирази)like goddamn, hell, rat, swine, cad, pig, skunk, stink-pot and others. InUkrainian: чорт, зараза, прокляття, свиня, гадюка, смердюк/ смердючка; obscene/dirty words (непристойні слова) as shit, piss and corruption (expression), shit, лайно. Functionally similar to them are vulgarisms which, like the previous group of low colloquialisms, are practically universal by their nature. These are used in oral speech in the main, though vulgarisms may sometimes occur (for stylistic reasons) in written speech as well. Cf. bum зад, задниця; punch пу- зо/барило, жлукто; mug рило/морда; stinkard смер- дюк/смердючка; cad тварюка; kiss off тягни (свої) ноги (звідси); bastard вилупок, байстрюк; hound собака, негідник, etc. Unlike vituperatives, such vulgarisms are registered in larger dictionaries, though in recent decades vituperative lexicons have become subject of scientific investigation [55].

Common by nature (and not only in the contrasted languages) are jargonisms and argotisms that seem to belong to absolute universals as well. Like all other low colloquialisms, they may sometimes have not only semantic but also stylistic equivalents in different languages. It goes without saying, however, that they are not necessarily of the same structural form as can be seen from the following examples: beaky носатий/ носач (шнобель), lemon негарна дівчина, lifer довічно ув'язнений, to beef скиглити ("скавуліти"), governor батько (сf. the Ukrainian "предок"), beans (brass, dibs, dough, off) гроші ("лімони"), etc. There are some other stylistically distinct subclasses of lexicons in the contrasted languages, such as professional words, scientific, poetic, bookish words, etc. Common in English and Ukrainian are the following professionalisms and terms: reaping (or harvesting) косовиця (жнива), threshing молотьба, sowing сівба, electrician електрик, electric train електропоїзд/електричка, school practice педагогічна практика, tutorial(n) консультація (зустріч із науковим керівником), translation practice перекладацька практика; to lecture читати лекції, to have workshops (Amer.) проводити семінарські заняття; to take exams/examinations складати іспит, a sharing experience lesson показовий урок/заняття з обміну досвідом.

Professionalisms and terms are also used in both contrasted languages in the same speech styles. Sometimes they may even acquire the same implied meaning in English and Ukrainian. Cf. an equalizer забитий у відповідь гол/розквитання,"зрівняти рахунок", а righthander (boxing) удар правою рукою/підступний вчинок, to keep oneб's powder dry тримати порох сухим у порохівниці, to heal the wounds/to repair damage загоїти/"зализати рани". Identical by nature though not always of identical lingual form, as Mas already been pointed out, are various scientific, social and political terms used in English and Ukrainian in the same speech styles and representing the same spheres of national economy or state affairs. Cf. politics політика, cybernetics кібернетика, finance фінанси, but proton протон, morpheme морфема, suffix суфікс, bacterial бакте- ріальний, medical медичний, etc. The scientific lexicon implies also several loan internationalisms as equation рівняння, identity тотож- ність, conductor провідник/громовідвід; summation, підсумовуван- ня, subtraction, віднімання, outer space міжпланетний простір, living standard/standard of living життєвий рівень, etc. Other stylistically distinct layers of lexicon in the contrasted languages include:

a) bookish wordswhich do not always correlate stylistically in English and Ukrainian. As a result, there are words/word-groups which are bookish only in English or only in Ukrainian. Cf. in the English language: contrariety протилежність/несумісність, disulpate (jurid.) виправ- довувати, disenable робити нездатним/скалічити, forthright чес- ний, brumal зимовий (сплячка), inter-agent посередник (агент), licit законний/дозволений, lacerate рвати (калічити, нівечити), malediction прокляття, malefactor лиходій/злочинець, etc. Bookish only in Ukrainian are властолюбство/властолюбний, power ambition/ power ambitious, возз'єднання reunification, всесилля unrestricted power, консеквентний consequent, конфіденціальний confidential, людомор assassin/man-slayer, etc. Many word-groups and words having a bookish nature (both semantic, stylistic and lingual) in the contrasted languages are actually internationalisms originating from one common source language. Eg: emanation еманація, Hellenic еллінський, macaronic макаронічний, macaronism макаронізм, etc.

b) Poetic words and expressionsform a stylistically common, though semantically not always coinciding subgroup of lexicon in English and Ukrainian as well. Poetic words split into two clearly distinguished groups: a) words/word-groups displaying their poetic nature already at language level, i.e. when singled out and b) words/word-groups acquiring their poetic tinge in a micro- or macrotext only. Thus, the following English words and word-groups are always poetic: affright (frighten), Albion (England), Caledonia (Scotland), adore (to worship), anarch (leader of an uprising/revolt), babe (baby), harken (hear), shrill (shriek), steed (horse), mash (admire), the Bard of Avon (Shakespeare), pass away (die), uncouth (strange), ye (you), the mam (ocean), the brow (forehead), the Kane (cow), etc. Similarly in Ukrainian whose poetisms are sometimes distinctly marked by their slightly archaic nature or by their Old Slav origin: вольний, враг, злото, дівчинонька, козаченько, кормига (ярмо), криця (крицевий), лжа (неправда), літа (роки), перса, чоло, etc. Poetic words of the second subgroup (which acquire their poetic tinge in a micro/macrocontext) may often be traditional in a national language. Thus, in English stylistically marked poetic word-groups can be found in Shakespeare's works: simple truth, gilded honour, purest faith, right perfection (Sonnet 66), youthful morn (66), swept love (56), hungry ocean, immortal life (81), sacred beauty (115), boundless sea (65) cf. in Ukrainian: безмежнеє море. A considerable number of wordgroups have also acquired a similar traditionally poetic flavour in Ukrainian due to our folk songs: гора крем'яная, літа молодії, орел сизокрилий, сива зозуля, світ широкий, синє море, чисте поле, чо- рнії брови, карії очі, червона калина, and others.

Apart from these there are some more common minute groups of stylistically marked words and word-groups in English and Ukrainian lexicons. The main of them are as follows: 1. Archaisms,i. e. old forms of words/word-groups, which are mainly used in poetic works or in solemn speech: algazel (gazelle), avaunt (out), batoon (baton), dicacity (talkativeness, mockery), eke (also), gyves (fetters), mere (pond, lake), a micle (much), parlous (perilous), per adventure (probably, perhaps), well nigh (almost, nearly), thee (you sg.), thou (you pl.), thy (your), ye (you), yonder (there), hereto (to this matter), therefrom (from that), therein (in that place), thereupon (upon that), whereof (of which). To this group also belong some participles ending in - en: a sunken ship, a drunken/drunk man, a shorn lamb; adverbs and set expressions as oft (often), all told, i.e. all counted, etc The most frequently used archaisms in Ukrainian are as follows: бард (Боян, поет), брань (битва), глас (голос), град (місто), гаківниця (гармата), комоні (коні), пахолок (прислужник), спудей (студент), ланіти (щоки), гостиниця (готель), глагол (слово), рать (військо, битва), пііт (поет), списник (мечник, лучник), колчан (чохол для стріл), and also: ректи, зримо, воздвигати, вражий, лжа, много, узріти, очіпок, копа (шістдесят снопів, яєць), півкопи (тридцять), вершок, гони, лікоть (міри довжини); медок (напій), кваша (страва) and several others.

Apart from the above-mentioned there exist in both contrasted languages (and not only in them) some other typologically isomorphic classes of lexical units. Among these a prominent place belongs to words singled out on the basis of their informational structure/capacity. Accordingly, two types of such words are traditionally distinguished:

1. Denotative words, which constitute the bulk of each language's lexicon and include the so-called nomenclature words and wordgroups, which are various terms and professionalisms of unique meaning. For example, electron, motor, miner, tongs, outer space, specific weight, bus, tailor, football, etc. Similarly in Ukrainian where these notionals are the same: електрон, мотор, шахтар, обценьки, реактор, вер- толіт, твід, швець, футбол, питома вага, космічний простір, etc. Most denotative words (and not only in the contrasted languages) are stylistically neutral. The latter may be represented by the whole lexico-grammatical classes such as: pronouns (he, she, we, you) and numerals (five, ten, twenty), most of verbs (be, live, love), nouns (mother, sister, cow, horse), adjectives (blue, white, old, fat, urban, rural, young) and all adverbs (today, soon, well, slowly, then, there) and some others.

2. Many words in English and Ukrainian may also have both denotative

and connotative meanings. Thus, the nouns bear, fox, pig, goose, parrot, rat and some others in their stylistically neutral meaningdesignate definite animals or birds, but when metonymically reinterpreted,they often acquire a vituperative (abusive) connotation. Correspondinglyin Ukrainian: свиня, тхір, собака, папуга, лисиця, корова (коровисько), бицюра, вівця, баран, жаба, ворона /ґава/.

3. Connotative words/word-groupsdirectly or indirectly correlate with their natural denotata, eg: Albion (poet, for England), the Bard of Avon (Shakespeare); Кобзар (Т. Shevchenko), Каменяр (I. Franko), дочка Прометея (Lesia Ukrainka) and some other. Connotative may become poetisms and neologisms: foe for enemy, kine for cow, dough (slang) for money, mods for admirer of jazz, know-how for skill, chicken (coll.) for baby (lovely boy or girl). Or in Ukrainian: чоло (поет.) лоб, макітра (low colloquial) -голова, рокер (neologism) любитель рок-музики, попса (low quality pop-music or songs), порнуха (pornographic film, performance), etc. Stylistically marked in both contrasted languages are three more

groups of lexical units:

1) ameliorative words:daddy, mummy, sissie, chivalrous, gentleman; матуся, татуньо, дідунь, козаченько, серденько, голівонька; 2) pejorative(лайливі) words: bastard, blackguard, clown, knave; байстрюк, нікчема, негідник, покидьок, головоріз, etc.; 3) constantly neutral wordsand word-groups/expressions, eg.: smith, geometry, teacher, love, you, he, all, гімнастика/фізкультура, історія, вчитель, коваль, любити, ненавидіти, я, ти, ми, п'ять, десять, тут, там and a lot others.

Of isomorphic nature in the contrasted languages and certainly universal is one more distinctive feature of lexicon, which finds its expression in the existence of such semantic classes of words as synonymsand antonyms.Synonymous words (and expressions) are semantically similar but different in stylistic use lexical units. There are distinguished in English, Ukrainian (and in other languages): synonymous nouns as end, close, termination, conclusion, finish, terminus, stopping; in Ukrainian: кінець, закінчення, зупинка, etc. synonymous adjectives as conclusive, ending, final, terminal, completing, ultimate; in Ukrainian: кінцевий, останній, заключний,

etc. synonymous verbs as the following: act, play, perform, rehearse, star, mimic, imitate, enact, play a part; in Ukrainian: діяти, викону- вати, відігравати, брати участь, грати, etc. synonymous adverbs: surprisingly, unexpectedly, unawares, plump, pop, suddenly, and in Ukrainian: раптово, зненацька, нега- дано, як сніг на голову, etc.

Antonymsas, for example: lateness - earliness, freedom - slavery; work - play, continue - stop, beautiful - ugly, good - bad, quickly - slowly, up - down, etc. In Ukrainian like in other languages there are also synonymous and antonymous meanings of different words, i.e. parts of speech.

These may be: nouns:огорожа/горожа, паркан, штахети, тин, живопліт, лиса; or: балакун, говорун, баляндрасник, торохтій, базікало, талалай; adjectives:безмежний, безкраїй, безконечний, неосяжний, безмірний, неозорий; verbs:бити, батожити, періщити, дубасити, лупити, лупцюва- ти, гилити; adverbs:швидко, скоро, прудко, бистро, хутко, шпарко, жваво, прожогом.

Apart from synonyms there are also antonyms: висота - низина; гора - долина; створювати - руйнувати; знаходити - губити; хва- лити - гудити; високи й - низький; багатий - бідний, гладкий - ху- дий, гарно погано, швидко - повільно, високо - низько, тепло - холодно, весело — сумно, etc.


28.Типи дериваційних морфем /афіксів та їхня роль в аглютинації в англійському та українському словоутворенні

Affixal morphemesin the contrasted languages split into a) Derivational morphemes which are in English and Ukrainian mainly suffixesand sometimes also prefixes. The number of suffixes in the contrastedlanguages considerably exceeds the number of prefixes. So is,naturally, the significance of the former as word-forming means, thelatter (prefixes) performing only in a few cases a word-building functionin Ukrainian. The number of suffixes in English does not exceed100, there being 60 noun-forming, 26 adjective-forming, 5 verbformingand 3 adverb-forming suffixes [13, 159 160]. Among thenoun-indicating/form-ing suffixes in English are -асу, -ance, -ion, -dom, -er, -ess, -hood, -ics, -ism, -ity, -ment, -ness, -ship, -tyand others. Cf. democracy, alliance, delegation, freedom,writer, falsehood,politics, feudalism, government, management, fitness, likeness, penmanship, friendship, loyalty, etc. The adjective-indicating suffixes are: -able, -al, -ial, -fold, -ful, -ic, -ile, -ish, -less, -ous, -some, -ward, -yand some others. Cf. capable, formal, presidential, manifold,grateful, laconic, futile, selfish, meaningless, dangerous, tiresome, eastward,happy, silly, etc.

The verb-indicating suffixes are -ate, -en, -esce, -ify, -ise.Cf. negotiate, facilitate, blacken, shorten, acquiesce, beautify, purify, demobilise, organise. The adverb-indicating suffixes are -ly, -wards, -ward,-ways:quickly, slowly, southward/southwards, sideways, etc.Ukrainian word-forming suffixes are more numerous and alsomore diverse by their nature, there being special suffixes to identifydifferent genders of nouns that are practically missing in English.Thus, masculine gender suffixes of nouns in Ukrainian are: -ник, -івник, -їльник, -ч, -ік/-їк, -ець/-єць, -ар/-яр, -ир, -ист, -іст, -тель, -альand others. Eg.: медик, господарник, рахівник, керманич, кравець, хімік, прозаїк, боєць, шахтар, муляр, бригадир, збирач, діяч, окуліст, вихователь, скрипаль, etc.Suffixes of feminine gender in Ukrainian usually follow th the masculinegender suffix in the noun stem, the most frequent of the formerbeing -к/а/, -иц/я/, -ес/а/, -ух/а/, -ш/а/, -івн/а/,etc. Cf. виховат-ель- к-а, рад-ист-к-а, спів-ан-к-а, уч-ен-иц-я, ткач-их-а, поет-ес-а, коваль-івн-а, морг-ух-а, директ-ор-ш-а, Семенів-на. The correspondingEnglish suffixes (-or, -ess, -me, -rix, -ine,and -ette)identifythe masculine and feminine sex and not the grammatical gender. Cf. actor, emperor, actress, poetess, directrix, emperatrix, heroine, suffragette. English nouns with the so-called gender suffixes do not differ

functionally from other nouns which have no such suffixes. Eg: The actor/actress sangand The bird sang.Ukrainian gender nouns, however, always require corresponding gender forms in attributes and predicates. Eg.: молодий артист співав. Гарна артистка співала. Ранкове небо сіріло. Малі пташки співали, чорний ворон сидів, сива ворона сиділа, сіре котеня нявкало. Ukrainian suffixes can form nouns of the feminine gender denoting nouns, abstract and collective nouns, for example: сніг-ур-к-а, переп-іл-к-а, цвірк-ун-к-а, паруб-от-а, рід-н-я, бор-н-я, біган-ин-а, бо- роть-6-а, сприт-ність, свіж-ин-а, балака-ни-на. Suffixes of the neuter gender are mostly used in Ukrainian to identify abstract and collective nouns and names of materials, babies, cubs, nurslings, as in the following nouns: жіно-цтв-о, учитель-ств-о, нероб-ств-о, бади-лл-я, заси-лл-я, збі-жж-я, кло-чч-я, смі-тт-я, горі-нн-я, велі-нн-я, терп-інн-я.

Apart from the afore-mentioned, there exist in Ukrainian large groups of evaluative diminutive and augmentative noun suffixes as in зір-оньк-а, сон-ечк-о, руч-ищ-е, голов-ешк-а, биц-юр-а, кабан-юр-а, etc. and patronimic suffixes like -енк-о, -ук, -чук, -ун, -щук, -ець, etc. (cf. Бондаренко, Головащук, Петрук, Поліщук, Чергинець, Литвинець, Лівшун, Мовчун). The number of suffixes forming only diminutive nouns in Ukrainian is as many as 53, compared with 16 suffixes in English, only 4 of which are practically productive (cf. gooseling, girlie, booklet, daddy, granny). Neither is there identity in the formation of English and Ukrainian statives, the latter mostly having in Ukrainian the same form as adverbs or modal words (cf. прикро, душно, треба, краще, etc.). These groups of suffixes (as can be seen below) pertain to English as well, but they are much less represented. Nevertheless, despite the difference in the quantity and quality of suffixes, they perform in

English and Ukrainian an isomorphic (either the word-forming or form-building) function. Form-building suffixes in English and Ukrainian, when added to the root (or to the stem of a word), change the form of these words, adding some new shade to their lexical meaning. The suffixes may also change the lexical meaning of the stem, for example: Ann Anny, duck duckling, hill hillock, friend friendship. Kyiv Kyivans. London Londoner, four — fourteen — forty, etc. In Ukrainian: дитина дитинча, лошак лошачок. Харків - харкі- в'янин, плітка -пліточка, хід - ходанина - походеньки, швидко - швиденько, хутко хутенько.

Prefixes in the contrasted languages modify the lexical meaning of the word. They may sometimes change even the lexico-grammatical nature of the derivative word. Word-forming prefixes pertain mostly to the English language where they can form different parts of speech. For example, verbs: bedew, bemadam, embed, encamp, enable, denude, disable, endear.

Adjectives: anti-war, non-party, pre-war, post-war. Statives: aboard, alike, asleep. Adverbs: today, tomorrow, together. Prepositions: below, behind. Conjunctions:because, unless, until.In Ukrainian only some conjunctions, prepositions and adverbs can be formed by means of prefixes, for example: вдень, вночі, по-нашому, no-новому, набік, вдруге, втретє, оскільки, внаслідок, вгору, знизу, щонайменше.Isomorphic is also the use of two (in English) and more (in Ukrainian) prefixes before the root/stem: misrepresentation, re-embankment. In Ukrainian three prefixes may be used to modify the lexical meaning of nouns, adjectives, past participles, and verbs, for example: недови- молот, недовиторг, перерозподіляти, недовимолочений, не/перерозподілений,недовиторгувати, перерозподілити, etc.

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